Dementia

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Dementia is the progressive decline of cognitive function due to organic damage to the cerebellum and the brain. Areas particularly affected include memory, attention, judgment, language, and problem-solving. Neuropsychological findings will include progressive deterioration of both short and long term memories.

Clinical dementia is diagnosed when memory, thinking and social behaviors are compromised enough to interfere with daily functioning. Behavioral indications include personality changes, depression, anxiety, inappropriate behavior, paranoia, agitation, hallucinations and decreased verbal fluency. Patients will show a difficulty in finding words, reasoning or problem-solving, handling complex tasks, planning, and organizing, coordination, and motor functions, confusion and disorientation.¹

Even though also a symptom, short term memory loss in cases of Superficial Siderosis can be traced to stress, depression, and cerebellar difficulties. A diagnosis of short term memory loss does not mean you have early stage dementia or will ever progress to dementia. It’s estimated only 25% of Superficial Siderosis patients with cognitive difficulties will progress into clinical dementia

You may read this case study describing a Superficial Siderosis patient who had progressed into dementia along with other Superficial Siderosis related symptoms. It is important to note beside Superficial Siderosis he had a past medical history of hypertension, cerebellar strokes, left ventricular ejection fraction of 46%, dyslipidemia, prostatic hyperplasia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It stands to reason there were other contributing factors besides Superficial Siderosis.³ You may download this study from the link below.

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¹  Dementia signs and symptoms, Dr. Rachel Fazio, Neuropsychologist
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Sources: Superficial siderosis is a rare neurologic disease characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, and neuroimaging findings revealing hemosiderin deposits in the spinal and cranial leptomeninges and subpial layer. The disease progresses slowly, and patients may present with mild cognitive impairmentnystagmus, dysmetria, spasticity, dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthriahyperreflexia, and Babinski signs. Additional features reported include dementia, urinary incontinence, anosmia, ageusia, and anisocoria. Superficial siderosis MedGen UID: 831707 •Concept ID: CN226971 •Finding Orphanet: ORPHA247245
Living With SuperficialSiderosis Website PubMed Reference Library 

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