Motor Skills Impairment

Motor skills are motions carried out when the brain, nervous system, and muscles work in concert. The cerebellum is deeply interconnected with sensory-motor areas of the cerebral cortex. Cerebellar ataxia and motor-based neuropathy damage both contribute to the loss or impairment of motor skills. Cerebellar ataxia affects the fine motor skills, small movements like opening a jar, holding a fork, cutting your food or using a small tool. Fine motor skills use the muscles in your fingers, hands, wrists, toes, lips, and tongue. Motor-based neuropathy affects the gross motor skills, the large muscles in the arms, legs, torso, and feet. These skills are responsible for the bigger movements like sitting, standing, walking, running and balance.     Updated: December 15, 2017 Sources: Superficial siderosis is a rare neurologic disease characterized by progressive sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, and neuroimaging findings revealing hemosiderin deposits in the spinal and cranial leptomeninges and subpial layer. The disease progresses slowly, and patients may present with mild cognitive impairment, nystagmus, dysmetria, spasticity, dysdiadochokinesia, dysarthria, hyperreflexia, and Babinski signs. Additional features reported include dementia, urinary incontinence, anosmia, ageusia, and anisocoria. Superficial siderosis MedGen UID: 831707 •Concept ID: CN226971 •Finding Orphanet: ORPHA247245 Living With SuperficialSiderosis Website…

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a condition in which individual muscle contract continually, or in some early cases, sporadically. These contractions cause muscle stiffness, spasms, cramps or tightness and may interfere with movement, speech, and gait. In Superficial Siderosis it’s caused by damage to descending motor pathways at the brainstem or spinal cord levels that control the a-motor neurons. Mild spasticity will present as a constant feeling of tightness in your muscles, tightness in your joints, low back pain, and muscle fatigue. Muscle stiffness will affect your movement and motor skills. Severe spasticity can become progressively painful. In the acute stage, muscle contractions become uncontrollable resulting in muscle and joint deformities. Movement, speech, and gait are all affected. Physical and occupational therapy for spasticity will help maintain or improve range of motion, mobility, coordination and increase your comfort. Treatments include stretching and strengthening exercises, limb positioning, application of cold packs, electrical muscle stimulation, and biofeedback.   Updated: December 15, 2017   Source: Kheder A, Nair KP. Spasticity: pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Pract Neurol. 2012 Oct. 12(5):289-98. [Medline]. Sahin N, Ugurlu H, Karahan AY. Efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound in the treatment of spasticity: a randomized controlled study. NeuroRehabilitation. 2011. 29(1):61-6. [Medline]. Burridge JH, Wood DE, Hermens HJ, Voerman…

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